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Private cars contribute the largest share of emissions by the transport sector at 35%, followed by commercial vehicles, taxis, buses, Mass Rapid Transit (MRT)/Light Rail Transit (LRT) and motorcycles.

Land Transport Carbon Emissions by Vehicle Mode (2005)
Land Transport Carbon Emissions by Vehicle Mode (2005)

Singapore is aiming for 75% of trips made during the morning and evening peak hours to be made by public transport by 2030, and increase this to at least 85% by the 2050s. This will help to reduce emissions as public transport is the most energy efficient mode of travel. The government's main thrusts include:

Increasing Investment in Mass Rapid Transit (MRT)

The Singapore Government has already invested S$60 billion to double the existing rail system from 138 km in 2008 to 280 km by around 2020. New rail lines and extension lines such as the Cross Island Line and the Jurong Region Line, which are expected to be completed by 2030, will extend the rail network to about 360 km.

To facilitate this expansion, more trains are being purchased and the number of weekly train trips has been increased to ensure that the MRT continues to remain an accessible, energy-efficient mode of travel for Singaporeans.

Increasing Investment in Mass Rapid Transit (MRT)
The MRT is a fuel-efficient mode of public transport.

The Bus Option

The introduction of higher-capacity buses and additional stops provides another great transportation alternative for Singaporeans.

With the introduction of another 800 buses, (a 20% increase) over the next five years, connectivity, efficiency and the overall experience of bus travel will make it an attractive option for commuters.

In addition, greater road priority for buses, such as full-day and part-day bus lanes and the Mandatory Give Way to Buses Scheme implemented island-wide make bus travel even more efficient.

The Bus Option
Source: The Straits Times © Singapore Press Holdings Limited. Reproduced with permission.

Stricter Vehicle Ownership

To curb carbon emissions resulting from the use of private vehicles, Singapore has put in place one of the world's most stringent and innovative vehicle ownership systems.

Our Vehicle Quota System (VQS) was first implemented in 1990 to control the amount of vehicles on Singapore's roads by limiting the number of new vehicles that can be registered yearly.

In order to register a new vehicle, individuals must bid for a Certificate of Entitlement (COE). The number of new vehicles allowed to be registered annually is derived from sustainability calculations, which is currently 0.5% of the total vehicle population.

Changing Driving Habits

The Electronic Road Pricing (ERP) system directly affects driving habits by implementing a pay-as-you-use charge on vehicles driving through congested areas. This encourages drivers to use alternative routes, drive at non-rush hour periods or use public transport.

As an added measure, a fuel excise duty between S$0.41 and S$0.44 is levied per litre of petrol, depending on the fuel grade.

Promoting Green Vehicles

A Carbon Emissions-based Vehicle (CEV) scheme provides incentives for consumers who buy vehicles that produce lower emissions. All new and imported used cars registered from 1 July 2015 that emit less than or equal to 135 g of carbon emissions per kilometre (gCO2/km) will qualify for rebates between S$7,500 and S$45,000, which will be given as an offset against the vehicle's payable Additional Registration Fee (ARF). Cars with high carbon emissions equal to or more than 186 g of CO2/km, will incur a corresponding registration surcharge between S$5,000 and S$30,000 beginning 1 July 2015.

Last updated 27 Dec 2017

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